UNDERSTANDING CLIMATE CHANGE
By Prof. Antoine Bret
Climate change is news. However, news, web or the press, cannot always convey answers to some questions as frequent as concrete. These questions, which often come back in one form or another, are:
1. How can we talk about climate in 100 years if we do not know if it will rain in 20 days?
2. How do we know that there is a climate change?
3. How do we know it comes from the increase in greenhouse gases (GHG)?
4. How do we know that these GHGs come from human activity?
5. Do the experts agree?
I will try to answer them here as briefly as possible 1.
1. How can we talk about climate in 100 years....?
It is a very pertinent question indeed, which will allow us to understand the difference between climate, and weather. To answer it, let's ask two more questions:
a. Will it be warmer in Madrid in July 2030 than in January 2030?
b. Will it rain in Madrid on 20 June 2020?
I think anyone would answer "yes" to question (a), and "no idea" to question (b). How can we achieve certainty in question (a) while it is impossible with the other?
When we think of (a) we think about what should happen in July and January. And what should happen is related to the height of the Sun in the sky. The higher, the more heat comes the longer, and the more heat it makes. But when we think about question (b) we think about what will really happen on that day, and here we find it impossible to answer more than a week or two in advance.
Question (a) has to do with the climate; (b) with the weather. As the English climatologist Mike Hulme wrote, "Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get" 2. It is possible to predict the climate. For this reason, tourist guides can inform about the average temperature in Madrid throughout the year, without the need for a crystal ball.
- UnderstandingClimateChangeFinalEnglishversion.pdf (14 Downloads)
Arc peace Ibero America
The undersigned, in total ability to act publicly, and in order to participate in activities for the common good, giving up profit from any of them, decide voluntarily and consensually to found this organization to operate internationally in Spanish and Portuguese languages, allowing its publications to be translated into different languages.
The aim of this organization is to promote and develop awareness on anthropocentric and bio-centric social responsibility through a consensual manner. Actions related to the areas of arts, academia, science, philosophy, politics, technology and trade relations will be arranged through planning that addresses common interests.
The spirit of cooperation that exalts the individual as being worthy of respect and understanding, in accordance with their culture of origin and rules of behavior are encouraged. The Declaration of Human Rights adopted by all member states of the United Nations will be used as a reference.
a. Conflict Resolution. To support the resolution of conflicts by peaceful means; to work for the conversion of war budgets in budgets for the education, health and development of peoples, influencing on decision making levels to reduce investment in the arms industry.
b. Environmental conservation. To suggest a harmonious relationship between habitat of man and the environment, in order to use our resources, knowledge and human skills, for the conservation of the natural environment; trying that actions of individuals and industries generate low environmental impact and high social impact.
c. Inclusive policies and strategies development.To engage in works that enrich the quality of life of the community, on the basis of design policies and strategies that are practicable and friendly at promoting disaster risk management, human security and respect for civil rights.
d. Construction. To promote man-built habitat strategies which use techniques and methods for the benefit of disadvantaged peoples; cooperating with them in building their homes and public areas for improving both privately and socially their standard of living.
f. Education. To generate strategies linking the goals and actions of the organization with academic higher education levels, by inserting curricular methodological tools that foster social interaction in order to improve the residents' quality of life for.
a. The organization shall operate under the name ARC PEACE Ibero America as a network via internet from where each member lives, meeting in this way on previously agreed dates and agenda. The group first task is the development of its Statutes taking as a guide ARC•PEACE International ones, in reference to its Mission, Vision and Institutional aims. These guidelines will help all chapters develop activities fully respecting both native culture and background.
b. Once registered ARC PEACE Ibero America will apply for partnering with ARC • PEACE International global network, integrating its Board and developing joint programs, as do Latin American NGOs already integrated from Cuba, Peru and Mexico, with its own activities and respecting their local and regional constitutive legal regulations.
c. Each member of ARC PEACE Ibero America is free to contribute ideas, initiatives and concrete actions from his/her location and global coordination may operate in rotation from different chapters. Inclusive plans, projects and programs will be developed always in harmony with the institutional mission and vision and within a framework of solidarity with the neediest communities.
d. ARC PEACE Ibero America starts its own Facebook page to become familiar with its operation and for inviting others to join as co-founders of ARC PEACE Ibero America.
e. ARC PEACE Ibero America starts its own Facebook page to become familiar with its operation and for inviting others to join as co-founders of ARC PEACE Ibero America.
f. The resources for the operation of ARC PEACE Ibero America will be generated by its members through membership fees, donations, grants and fundraising events, as regulated by the statutes.
- Arc·Peace Ibero America Funding Act (959 Downloads)
ARC PEACE Iberoamérica
Las personas abajo firmantes, en total habilidad para actuar públicamente, y con la finalidad de participar en actividades en favor del bien común, renunciando a lucrar con cualquiera de ellas, deciden voluntaria y de mutuo acuerdo fundar esta organización que funcionará internacionalmente en idiomas español y portugués, pudiendo sus publicaciones ser traducidas a diferentes idiomas.
Es intención de esta organización fomentar y desarrollar de manera consensuada una conciencia de responsabilidad social antropocéntrica y bio-céntrica. Las acciones relacionadas a las áreas del arte, la academia, la ciencia, la filosofía, la política, la tecnología y las relaciones de intercambio serán instrumentadas por medio de la planificación que contemple los intereses comunes.
Se alentará el espíritu de cooperación que enaltece al individuo en tanto ser digno de respeto y comprensión, con arreglo a su cultura de origen y a las normas de convivencia. Se utilizará como marco referencial la Declaración de los Derechos Humanos aprobada por todos los estados miembros de las Naciones Unidas.
a. Resolución de conflictos. Apoyar la resolución de conflictos por vías pacíficas; trabajar por la reconversión de presupuestos de guerra en presupuestos para la educación, la salud y el desarrollo de los pueblos, incidiendo en las instancias de tomas de decisión para reducir la inversión en la industria armamentista.
b. Conservación del medio ambiente. Proponer una relación de armonía entre el hábitat del hombre y el medio ambiente, de modo de utilizar nuestros recursos, conocimiento y habilidades humanos, en pro de la conservación del medio ambiente natural tratando de que las acciones de los individuos e industrias generen un bajo impacto ambiental y un alto impacto social.
c. Elaboración de políticas y estrategias inclusivas. Comprometernos con las labores de enriquecimiento de la calidad de vida de la comunidad, a base de políticas y estrategias de diseño practicables y amigables que promuevan la gestión del riesgo de desastres, seguridad humana y respeto de los derechos civiles.
d. Construcción. Promover estrategias de construcción del hábitat que usen técnicas y métodos en beneficio de los menos favorecidos, cooperando con ellos en la construcción de sus viviendas y áreas públicas de modo de mejorar su nivel de vida tanto privado como social.
e. Educación. Generar estrategias para vincular los objetivos y acciones de la organización con instancias académicas de formación superior, con el propósito de insertar en sus planes curriculares instrumentos metodológicos que fomenten la interacción social con el objetivo de mejorar la calidad de vida de los habitantes.
a. La organización funcionará bajo el nombre ARC PEACE Iberoamérica como una red de trabajo por medio de internet desde donde viva cada miembro, reuniéndose por esa vía con fecha y temario previamente acordados. Su primera tarea grupal consistirá en la elaboración de sus estatutos tomando como guía los de ARC PEACE Internacional, en lo referido a su MISIÓN, VISIÓN y OBJETIVOS institucionales. Estas pautas servirán de guía para que las sub sedes desarrollen actividades con pleno respeto de su cultura y vivencias autóctonas.
b. Una vez registrada ARC PEACE Iberoamérica solicitará a ARC•PEACE Internacional participar de su red global, integrando su Junta Directiva y desarrollando programas conjuntos, como lo hacen las ONG latinoamericanas que ya la integran desde Cuba, Perú y México, con sus actividades propias y respetando las regulaciones constitutivas del marco legal de su región.
c. Cada miembro de ARC PEACE Iberoamérica es libre de aportar ideas, iniciativas y acciones concretas desde donde resida, y la coordinación general podrá operar en forma rotativa desde distintas sub sedes. Desde allí se desarrollarán planes, proyectos y programas inclusivos siempre en armonía con la misión y visión institucional en un marco de solidaridad con las comunidades más necesitadas.
d. ARC PEACE Iberoamérica utilizará inicialmente como grupo cerrado su página en Facebook a fin de familiarizarse con su funcionamiento e invitar a otras personas a sumarse en calidad de co-fundadoras de ARC PEACE Iberoamérica.
e. Del mismo modo podrá organizar un Foro oral y escrito que sirva para coleccionar experiencias y trabajos de los miembros de la Red, y ponerlos a consideración de todos sus integrantes y de cualquier persona interesada. Esto incluye iniciar su página web de modo de informar de sus actividades, publicar documentos, informar y ofrecer servicios.
f. Los recursos para el funcionamiento de ARC PEACE Iberoamérica serán generados por sus miembros por medio de cuotas societarias, donaciones, subsidios y eventos para recaudación de fondos, todo lo que será regulado en los estatutos.
- ARC•PEACE Ibero America (843 Downloads)
International Architects Designers Planners for Social Responsibility
Dick Urban Vestbro (editor)
This book is meant to make a contribution to the international debate on architecture and physical planning, on the tasks and ethical responsibilities of architects and planners in the political systems in which they work.
The book was initiated at the beginning of 2013 by Sven Thiberg, the co-founder and former chairman of ARC•PEACE. He then submitted an application for funding from the Swedish Association of Architects, which granted us a sum of USD 1000. This allowed us to arrange a panel debate on Architecture and Planning under Different Political Systems in connection with ARC•PEACE’s General Assembly meeting in Vienna in April 2014. (It covered travel costs for panelists with scarce resources plus some administrative costs).
Later on an invitation was sent out calling on ARC•PEACE members to send contributions to this book. There was a tremendous response, resulting in no less than 15 willing authors.
- Architecture and planning under different political systems (2112 Downloads)
by the ARC●PEACE Fundraising Committee (July 2012, revised in April and November 2013)
The ARC●PEACE Activity Plan for 2012-2014, approved after the Copenhagen General Assembly in April 2012, states:
Fundraising. Our institutional growth must be the outcome of members faithfully following a viable action plan, which in turn is supported by budgeting that wisely allocates financial resources. In accordance with group discussions at the GA meeting 2012 a new approach to recruiting of members and procurement of funds is recommended.
- Fundraising - A Practical Handbook (1003 Downloads)
by Dick Urban Vestbro, Prof. Emer. at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm
The article was originally written in 1999 as part of a report by students of architecture at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. The report was a result of a course on third world housing given by Prof Vestbro and included a fieldwork in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. In 2012 the paper was slightly revised.
- Housing in the Apartheid City (942 Downloads)
Lessons from Working with the Poor Vulnerable Communities, Mumbai, India, paper presented by Bijay Misra at the ASF Int & ARC●PEACE Seminar, 13 April 2012,Copenhagen.
The presentation is about working together with poor and vulnerable communities in the mega city Mumbai in order to promote self resiliency among them against disasters. The context of natural disasters including the catastrophic ones and their increasing impact on large cities has been a major concern.
- Disaster Risk Management in Mega Cities (935 Downloads)
Interview with Abe Hayeem of Architects and Planners for Justice in Palestine.
Abe Hayeem is an architect, peace activist and the chair and co-founder of Architects & Planners for Justice in Palestine. He has written for the Guardian Comment is Free, Architecture Week, Building Design, Palestine News, Red Pepper, and the IOA.
- Interview with Abe Hayeem (1066 Downloads)
- Human Rights in Architectural Education (1410 Downloads)
Papers from a seminar in Barcelona, April 2008 by Dick Urban Vestbro, Prof.Emer. at the Dept. of Urban Planning, the Royal Institute of Technology.
This publication is a result of a seminar arranged in Barcelona on the 18th of April 2008, arranged by three cooperating organisations, namely a) ARC●PEACE International Architects Designers Planners for Social Responsibility; b) Arquitectos Sin Fronteiras-España, and c) Architecture Sans Frontières-Sweden (ASF-Sweden).
- Are architects and planners obstacles to slum upgrading? (991 Downloads)
Architecture as Politics. The Role of Design and Planning for Peace and Sustainable Development,
The main aim of this publication is to stimulate the debate about the responsibility of designers and planners for sustainable development of the built environment. A secondary aim is to document the achievements of ARC•PEACE during its 15 years’ of work.
The title “Architecture as Politics” is chosen as a common denominator of the contributions to this book. Politics is taken in its widest sense, i.e. as something that concerns society and people in general. The focus is on the role of design and planning for sustainable and peaceful development.
The authors of this anthology are all ARC•PEACE members. Some are scholars who write from a perspective of their scientific interest. Others write as peace and environment activists. This combination suits ARC•PEACE well since our organisation does not only wish to explain what is going on in reality, but also to change reality towards a more liveable world.
- Architecture as Politics (1615 Downloads)
Report from a workshop at the conference 'Challenges for Science and Engineering in the 21st Century', Stockholm, Sweden, 14-18 June 2000.
This report is the result of a workshop at the conference Challenges for Science and Engineering in the 21st Century, held at The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, 14-18 June 2000. The Conference was organised by the International Network of Engineers and Scientists for Global Responsibility (INES), a non-profit organisation with the status as a Non-Government Organisation affiliated to the United Nations. INES is concerned with the impact of science and technology on society and focuses especially on disarmament, international peace, ethics, justice and sustainable development.
Paper presented by Prof Rafi Samizay, School of Architecture Washington State University, for ARC•PEACE in 1992.
While wars have always adversely impacted the built environment, their effects during the last two centuries have been the most destructive. Damage to archeological findings, buildings, cities and regions have been more extensive in recent history. Furthermore, wars are increasingly fought on the soils of economically deprived nations adding to the magnitude of their socioeconomic miseries.
- Paper presented by Prof Rafi Samizay (1013 Downloads)
Proceedings from the Prague International Assembly of Architects, Planners and Designers for Professional Actions Against Ecological Disaster, Homelessness and the Armament Race : Prague, 7-10 Novembre 1989.
The Prague International Assembly of Architects, Planners and Designers for professional actions against ecological disaster, homelessness and the armament race can probably be viewed as the most important attempt so far to link the vital questions of our professions to the global risk for nuclear war and other actions of mass annihilation.
- What Architects Can Do for Peace and Development (851 Downloads)
Disarmament and the question of Conversion, Speech at the 1988 ARC•PEACE meeting in Stockholm by Inga Thorsson
Inga Thorsson was born in 1915. Throughout her life she has held a number of political appointments, both in Sweden and abroad. During 1964-66 she was Sweden's Ambassador in Tel Aviv and during 1974-82 Under- Secretary and Chairman of the Disarmament Delegation and of the Swedish Delegation to the International Conference on Disarmament in Geneva.
Congress of the International Union of Architects, 1981
Presented at the UIA Congress , the Warsaw Declaration of Architects concerns only the most general problems of contemporary planning and architecture all over the world. The strong differentiation between regions, cultures, countries and socio-economical systems makes impossible to propose detailed recommendations that could be good for all the countries. We hope, however, that in the framework of general statements of the Declaration for particular areas and periods in every region or country more detailed system of evaluation, opinions and recommendations can be developed.
- The Warsaw Declaration (934 Downloads)